Table of Contents
- Fundamental Rights of the Indian Constitution
- 6 Fundamental Rights of the Indian citizen
- Fundamental Rights of India in detail
- Right to equality (Article 14 – Article 18)
- Right to freedom (Article 19 – Article 22)
- Right against exploitation (Article 23 – Article 24)
- Right to freedom of religion (Article 25 – Article 28)
- Cultural and educational rights (Article 29- Article 30)
- Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32- Article 35)
- Key takeaways
Fundamental rights are considered an important, if not the most important, component of the Indian Constitution. The Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution are taken from or inspired by the Bill of Rights in the United States Constitution. These rights provide a sense of responsibility to the citizens. Let us have a look at the Fundamental Rights of India.
Fundamental Rights of the Indian Constitution
The Constitution guarantees these without discrimination against any person. These aim to spread the concept of political democracy. They defend the people’s freedom and liberties from invasion by state authorities. These fundamental rights help to establish a government based on laws.
6 Fundamental Rights of the Indian citizen
The Indian Constitution initially provided seven fundamental rights, which have now been reduced to six. They are as follows-
- Right to equality (Articles 14–18)
- Right to freedom (Articles 19–22)
- Right against exploitation (Articles 23–24)
- Right to freedom of religion (Articles 25–28)
- Cultural and educational rights (Articles 29–30)
- Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32)
|Right to equality||(a) Article 14 – Equal protection of law and equality before the law. |
(b) Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination based on religion, caste, sex, place of birth, or race.
(c) Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in terms of public employment.
(d) Article 17 – Abolition of untouchability and prohibition of its practice.
(e) Article 18 – Abolition of titles except military and academic.
|Right to freedom||(a) Article 19 – Protection of six rights regarding freedom of-|
(i) Speech and expression,
(v) Residence, and
(b) Article 20 – Protection in a conviction for offenses.
(c) Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty.
(d)Article 21A – Right to elementary education.
(e) Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in some instances.
|Right against exploitation||(a) Article 23 – Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor. |
(b) Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children in companies and factories, etc.
|Right to freedom of religion||(a) Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion. |
(b) Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs.
(c) Article 27 – Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any religion or religious affairs.
(d) Article 28 – Freedom from attending religious instruction or worship in certain educational institutions
|Cultural and educational rights||(a) Article 29 – Protection of language, script, and culture of minorities. |
(b) Article 30 – Rights of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
|Right to constitutional remedies||Article 32 – Right to move the Supreme Court for the enforcement of fundamental rights, including the writs of-|
(i) Habeas corpus,
(v) Quo Wrranto
Fundamental Rights of India in detail
Let us understand our fundamental rights and use them wisely when necessary.
Right to equality (Article 14 – Article 18)
Equality before the law and equal protection laws are guaranteed, as is the prohibition of discrimination on specific grounds such as religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth in matters of public employment. Abolish and prohibit untouchability and all titles except military and academic.
Right to freedom (Article 19 – Article 22)
Six rights are protected- freedom of expression and assembly, association, movement, residence, and profession. These six rights only protect state action, not private individuals. These rights are only available to citizens and are not available to foreigners. An accused person is protected from excessive and arbitrary punishment.
It is open to both citizens and foreigners. The right to freedom also states that no one shall be deprived of their life or personal liberty except under legal procedures. It also says that the state must provide free and compulsory education to all children aged six to fourteen. It protects people who have been arrested or detained.
Right against exploitation (Article 23 – Article 24)
It outlaws human trafficking, forced labor, and other forms of forced labor. It also forbids minors under 14 to work in any mine, factory, or other hazardous activity such as construction or railway work.
Right to freedom of religion (Article 25 – Article 28)
Everyone has the same right to conscience and the freedom to practice, propagate, and profess religion. Every religious group must have the following rights-
- Maintain and establish religious and charitable institutions.
- Take care of its religious affairs.
- Purchase and own both movable and immovable property.
- Manage such property following the law.
Freedom from Taxation for religious promotion means that no one shall be forced to pay taxes to maintain or promote any religious denomination or section.
Cultural and educational rights (Article 29- Article 30)
Any section of citizens in any part of India with its script, culture, or language shall have the right to preserve it. No citizen shall be denied admission to or receive aid from any educational institution maintained by the State solely on the basis of caste, language, religion, or race. All minorities must have the right to govern and establish educational institutions of their choice.
Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32- Article 35)
Article 32 of the Indian Constitution mentions the right of an aggrieved citizen to recourse for the enforcement of their fundamental rights (if anyone violated the Fundamental Rights). It is also known as the right to have one’s Fundamental Rights protected, which is a fundamental right in and of itself. Article 32 establishes fundamental rights.
- The Indian Constitution originally established seven fundamental rights, which have since been reduced to six.
- All the Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution are taken from or inspired by the Bill of Rights in the United States Constitution.
- Fundamental rights and fundamental duties must coexist for a democracy to function correctly.
We hope you found this blog useful. If so, please share your thoughts in the comments section below. Click here to contact us for more information on the fundamental rights of India. We would be pleased to answer your questions.
Liked this blog? Read next: Gender equality- the need for change
Q1. What is Article 35A in the Indian Constitution?
Answer- Article 35A of the Indian Constitution gave the Jammu and Kashmir state legislature the authority to define ‘permanent residents’ of the state and grant them special rights and privileges.
Q2. What are fundamental human rights?
Answer- Human rights include the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of thought and expression, the right to work and education, and many others.
Q3. Who protects the fundamental rights?
Answer- The Indian judiciary, or the Supreme Court, is the protector of Indian citizens’ fundamental rights and the keeper of the Indian constitution.