Table of Contents
- Types of research design | An overview
- What are the 4 types of research design?
- Methodology and characteristics of Research design
- Key takeaways
Types of research design | An overview
A research design is a framework and methodologies for conducting research.
A research process involves multiple steps that are sequential and progress towards a predetermined objective. Following these ensures accurate results. A research design involves logical steps in a research process and helps to address the topics cohesively to produce accurate results. Let’s take a look at the different types of research design and how they help.
What are the 4 types of research design?
Descriptive research design
As the name suggests, a descriptive design is concerned with explaining the project in detail.
It helps a researcher to explain why and how research is conducted. It is useful, especially when the problem statement is unclear.
Types of descriptive research design
- Observational method
The observational approach allows researchers to collect data based on their observations of the respondent’s behavior and characteristics.
- Case-study method
A case study is a sample group (one individual, a group of individuals, an organization, an event, etc.) whose characteristics are used to describe a larger group to which the case study belongs.
- Survey method
This method implies the researcher designs a survey or questionnaire and distributes it to the participants. It is a form of gathering quick responses.
Experimental research design
Among the other types of research designs, the experimental design is frequently used to study human behavior by comparing two groups.
To acquire a better understanding of social behavior, researchers might have individuals adjust their activities.
The experimental study helps in establishing a link between the cause and effect of the situation. It is a casual design in which the influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable is observed. One may track the impact of an independent variable like pricing on a dependent variable like customer satisfaction or brand loyalty.
Types of experimental research design
- Pre-experimental research design
Pre-experimental designs are research methods that include observing a patient or a group after a treatment has been administered to see if the therapy has the potential to affect change.
- True experimental research design
True experimental design is a statistical method for determining a cause-and-effect link between variables. This approach helps the researcher with a lot of evidence to back up correlations, hence is quite accurate.
- Quasi-experimental research design
The quasi-experimental research design refers to assessing therapies but does not employ randomization. Quasi-experiments, like randomized trials, try to prove causation between an intervention and a result.
Correlational research is a study that includes examining two variables to find a statistically significant link between them. The goal of correlational research is to find variables that are related to each other to where a change in one causes a change in the other.
For example, the correlational study may be used to disclose the statistical association between high-income earning groups and relocation. The findings of such research will help you establish facts, draw inferences and make recommendations.
Types of correlational design
- Positive correlational design
Positive correlational research is a strategy that uses two statistically correlated variables. This helps to see if a fluctuation in one causes a similar change in the other.
- Negative correlational design
Negative correlational research is a strategy that involves two statistically opposing variables, where an increase in one variable has an opposite impact on the other variable.
- Zero/No correlational design
This form of research design involves two variables that are not statistically related. A change in one of the variables may not cause any change in the other variable in this scenario.
Yet another type of research design is Diagnostic design. It is a study that aims to figure out the cause of a phenomenon. It can help you understand the factors that lead to particular issues or obstacles that your customers may be facing.
The three phases of diagnostic designs-
- The inception of the issue
The inception of the issue deals with the time the issue arises.
- Diagnosis of the issue
This factor deals with the cause of the issue and what pushes it to worsen.
- Solution of the issue
This factor deals with what works to solve the problem and what situations lead the problem to become less evident.
The goal of the explanatory design is to figure out why a subject is being investigated.
The explanatory study is a technique for investigating the given phenomena that have not been studied or explained.
This technique allows the researcher to understand a broad idea and uses deep examination to help them comprehend it in detail. In a nutshell, it’s a study design that focuses on determining the reasons for occurrences by establishing cause-and-effect correlations.
Types of explanatory design
- Literature search
Literature research involves obtaining information from sources such as the internet and libraries. Magazines, periodicals, commercial literature, and academic literature are other sources for a literature search.
- Depth interview
Depth interviews are commonly used to collect information and the experiences of persons with knowledge connected to the subject.
- Focus groups
Focus groups include a group of people who have a shared goal and are knowledgeable about the topic at hand.
- Case analysis
Case analysis implies solving the problem by focusing on a few carefully chosen examples or occurrences of the phenomena. We have seen the different research designs. Every research has characteristics and can employ varied methodologies.
Methodology and characteristics of Research design
1. Qualitative design
As the name suggests, the qualitative design seeks to answer the “What’s” and “How’s,” which means it is explanatory.
It primarily focuses on why a particular theory exists and what the ideal responses should be. This approach helps the researcher to reach a conclusion based on accurate data. Case studies are generally used in qualitative research to better understand societal intricacies.
Types of qualitative design –
- Phenomenological studies
- Ethnographic studies
- Grounded theory studies
- Historical studies
- Case studies
- Action research studies
2. Quantitative design
Quantitative Research Design implies a process where research explores multiple factors in a project while using numbers and statistics to assess the results. The most common methods of data gathering, measurement, and meta-analysis are to employ visuals, figures, and pie charts.
Types of quantitative design-
- Descriptive Research Design
- Correlational Research Design
- Quasi-experimental Research Design
- Experimental Research Design
- Every discipline, such as medical, science, technology, art, culture, media, mathematics, geography, and others, requires research to draw accurate results.
- An accurate research design should be in place to successfully conduct comprehensive research on a large number of samples.
- Impactful research can not only be beneficial to society but can also help to advance society too. This makes it crucial for a suitable research methodology to verify and validate the findings in multiple domains.
That’s all we have for you in this blog. If you have any questions/suggestions, reach out to us or drop a comment.
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Q1. What are the research design methods?
Answer – The research design methods include-
- Focus groups
Q2. What are the factors that affect a research design?
Answer – The factors that affect a research design include-
- Time and budget constraints
- Target audience
- Research questions
- Research objective and other factors.
Q3. How do you select a research design?
Answer – Below are the steps to select a research design-
- Consider your approach.
- Pick a type of research.
- Identify your audience and research method.
- Choose your data collection methods.
- Plan your data collection procedures.
- Decide your data analysis strategies.