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DBMS architecture | An overview
The architecture of a database management system influences its design. A basic client/server architecture manages many computers, database servers, web servers, and other network-connected components. It is made up of a large number of computers and a workstation that is linked together via a network. The architecture of the DBMS is determined by how users connect to the database to fulfill their requests. Databases come in wide varieties and can be viewed as multi-tiered or single-tiered. Therefore, they are divided into two types: two-tier architecture and three-tier architecture.
What does DBMS do?
The database management system manages the data; the database engine allows data to be accessed, locked, and modified; and the database schema defines the logical structure of the database. These fundamental elements contribute to concurrency, security, data integrity, and consistent data administration procedures. The DBMS supports many common database administration tasks, including change management, performance monitoring, tuning, security, and backup and recovery. Most database management systems are also in charge of automated rollbacks and restarts and logging and auditing database and application activity.
The DBMS provides a centralized view of data that can be accessed and controlled by multiple users from multiple locations.
A database management system (DBMS) can limit what data end users access and how they view the data by providing multiple views of a single database schema. The DBMS handles all requests, and end users and software programs are not required to understand where the data is physically located or on what type of storage medium it resides.
The DBMS can provide both logical and physical data independence, shielding users and applications from having to know where data is stored or being concerned about changes to data’s physical structure. Developers will not have to modify programs simply because the database has changed if programs use the application programming interface (API) provided by the DBMS.
Types of DBMS architecture
1- Tier Architecture
2- Tier Architecture
3- Tier Architecture
Architecture with a single-tier
In this architecture, the user is directly connected to the database management system. The user sits directly on the database and uses it as needed. Any changes made to the database by the user are direct, and no other tools are provided for end users. The application is developed using a single-tier architecture by developers. To reduce communication time, programmers can communicate directly with the database here.
Advantage- It is quick for a single user because no communication with another system is required.
Disadvantage-Impossible to scale. In addition, the local client allows only one user to connect to the system simultaneously.
Architecture with two tiers-
The database management system employs the same two-tier architecture as the basic client-server architecture we have seen. In this architecture, the application at the client’s end can communicate directly with the database on the server. APIs, most commonly ODBC or JDBC, are used in this interaction. The application programs and user interface are run on the client’s side. The server is in charge of transaction management and query processing.
Advantages-It is simple to maintain and modify. Communication is more rapid.
Disadvantages- The main issue with two-tier architecture is that the server cannot respond to multiple requests simultaneously, resulting in data integrity issues.
Architecture with three tiers
The three-tier architecture has an additional layer between the client and the server. As a result, the client and server cannot communicate directly. The client and server applications interact, which then communicate with the database. The user knows nothing about the database besides its application, and the database knows nothing about the user besides the server application.
- Increased scalability as a result of application server distribution. Individual connections between client and server are no longer required.
- Data integrity is preserved
- Data corruption can be avoided/removed because there is a middle layer between the client and the server.
- Security is enhanced
- This model prevents the client from interacting directly with the server, limiting access to unauthorized data.
Disadvantages- Increased implementation and communication complexity. Due to the presence of middle layers, this type of interaction becomes more difficult.
- A database can store essential information and enable secure and faster data access. The right architecture is important for effective data management. Databases come in wide varieties and can be viewed as multi-tiered or single-tiered.
- The database management system (DBMS) manages the data. The database engine helps in accessing, locking, and modifying data. The database schema defines the logical structure of the database.
- The user is directly connected to the database management system in single-tier architecture. DBMS employs the same two-tier architecture as the basic client-server architecture. The three-tier architecture has an additional layer between the client and the server.
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Q1. What are the 8 types of databases?
Ans- Given below are 8 types of databases-
- Centralized Database
- Distributed Database
- Personal Database
- End User Database
- Commercial Database
- NoSQL Database
- Operational Database
- Relational Databases
Q2. Why do we use DBMS?
Ans- Database Management Systems (DBMS) are software systems that store, retrieve, and execute data queries. A database management system (DBMS) acts as a bridge between an end-user and a database, allowing users to create, read, update, and delete data from the database.
Q3. Which language is used in DBMS?
Ans- Structured Query Language (SQL) is the de facto standard programming language used by most of the world’s most popular database servers.