Table of Contents
- Civil Disobedience movement | Things that you should know about the freedom
- How did the CDM start?
- What were the causes of the Civil Disobedience Movement?
- Impacts of the Civil Disobedience Movement
- Some interesting facts of the Civil Disobedience Movement
- Limitations of the Civil Disobedience Movement?
- What happened after the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Civil Disobedience movement | Things that you should know about the freedom
The Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) was one of the most prominent events in the nationalist movement in India. It was the CDM that paved the way to free India from Britishers.
CDM had spread all over the country, especially in the urban areas. In addition, it witnessed the massive participation of people belonging to the lower castes.
This blog will discuss everything you need to know about the CDM in India, including its causes, impacts, drawbacks, and more. Therefore, if you want to know more about how Mahatma Gandhi initiated the CDM and brought freedom to our country, keep reading!
How did the CDM start?
- To carry out the Lahore Congress mandate, Gandhi presented the government with 11 demands and set a deadline of January 31, 1930, to accept or reject these demands.
- However, with no favorable reaction from the government to these requests, Gandhi was given full permission by the Congress Working Committee to begin the CDM.
- By the end of February, Gandhi had chosen to make salt the fundamental element of the campaign.
- Following the celebration of Independence Day in 1930, Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- It all began with Gandhi’s well-known Dandi March.
- On March 12, 1930, Gandhi and 78 other Ashram members set off on foot from Ahmedabad’s Sabarmati Ashram for Dandi, a place on India’s western seacoast some 385 kilometers from Ahmedabad.
- On April 6, 1930, they landed at Dandi. Gandhi had violated the salt law there.
- Gandhi disobeyed the authorities by taking up a pinch of salt from sea evaporation.
What were the causes of the Civil Disobedience Movement?
- The Simon committee, established by the British government in 1927 to formalize India’s constitution and comprised exclusively of British members, was repudiated by the Indian National Congress and other sociopolitical organizations and was termed the “All-White Commission.”
- A commission chaired by Motilal Nehru wrote a new constitution in Calcutta in 1928. In 1928, the INC asked that the British government recognize Nehru’s Report.
- The report’s primary focus was to grant India Dominion Status. It threatened and blackmailed the British government if they did not accept the findings, and a civil disobedience movement would be started.
- According to the Governor-General of India, Lord Irwin, the fundamental purpose of the constitutional reform was to grant India dominion status.
- Following the proclamation, Gandhi and other activists requested a round table meeting to address the constitutional problem. When the British administration failed to respond favorably to their proposals, the civil disobedience campaign was born.
Impacts of the Civil Disobedience Movement
- The movement had far-reaching consequences. It had created suspicion in the British administration and set the framework for the liberation fight, as well as popularized new propaganda tools such as the Prabhat, pheris, and pamphlets.
- The government removed the onerous salt tax in response to forest law resistance in Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Central Province, as well as reluctance to pay the rural ‘Chaukidari tax’ in Eastern India.
- Clothing and cigarette imports from other countries were slashed in half. Land revenue and liquor excise revenue were also lowered by the government.
- The campaign drew a significant number of women and students.
- It was empowering for Indian women to access the shared spheres in such enormous numbers for the first time.
Some interesting facts of the Civil Disobedience Movement
- The Civil Disobedience Movement was the first-ever nationwide movement in the country. It was the first time when all the countrymen stood together against the injustice of the British government.
- Not just the cities, but CDM received participation from small villages and towns as well.
- It was the first movement when a large number of women from all the castes participate in a protest.
- Popular women like Kasturba M. Gandhi, Avantikabai Gokhale, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay, Hansaben Mehta, and Lilavati Munshi have led Satyagraha in many cities.
- Non-violence was the motto of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Despite many violent efforts, Britishers could not suppress this movement.
- The Civil Disobedience Movement was put to an end with the Gandhi-Irwin pact on March 5, 1931.
Limitations of the Civil Disobedience Movement?
The Civil Disobedience Movement had undoubtedly made every Indian realize the importance of freedom and democracy. It filled the hearts of Indians with immense patriotism. However, there were some drawbacks as well. Below are the limitations of the Civil Disobedience Movement:
- Industrial workers did not participate in the protests in large numbers, except for workers in Nagpur.
- Muslims were reluctant to participate because of the advice from their communal leaders.
What happened after the Civil Disobedience Movement?
After the failure of the Second Round Table Conference, Gandhi had to return to India. And when he visited the United States, the Congress Committee called a meeting with the goal to revive the Civil Disobedience Movement once again. British officers detained the top-most Congress officials.
Below are some other events that took place after the Civil Disobedience Movement in India:
- The country saw many draconian laws.
- Satyagrahis were brutally repressed and the anti-tax campaigns were also rebuked.
- Although Indians did not lose hope and fought back, Congress leaders were unable to maintain pace, and hence, this movement got crushed.
- Notably, this second phase of CDM lasted until 1934 when Mahatma Gandhi called it off.
- Gandhi decided to end the Civil Disobedience Movement. Many leaders such as Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and Vithalbhai Patel criticized it. They even demanded a new leader for Congress.
So, this was all about the great Civil Disobedience Movement in India. It was indeed one of the most important events that played a huge role in India’s journey to independence.
Did you enjoy this blog? If yes, please share your thoughts in the comments below. Click here to reach out to us for more information. We would be happy to assist you with your queries!
Liked this blog? Read next: Mahatma Gandhi essay | Write an engaging essay with these facts!
Q1. Who led the CDM in India?
Answer: It was Mahatma Gandhi who launched the CDM in India. In addition, many other leaders and volunteers joined him later.
Q2. When did the CDM start?
Answer: The CDM started on April 6, 1930.
Q3. With what demand did CDM start?
Answer: The goal of CDM was to offer non-violent resistance against the harsh British laws. With this movement, Indian leaders demanded Purna Swaraj (demanded Dominion status) from the British government.