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Meteorology – an overview
The study of meteorology explains observed weather events as meteorological phenomena. The variables of the Earth’s atmosphere—temperature, air pressure, water vapor, mass flow—as well as their variations, interactions, and temporal variations—are used to describe and quantify meteorological phenomena.
The Discourse on the Method (1637) by Rene Descartes is a prime example of the start of meteorology’s scientific revolution. Four core principles were the basis of his scientific method:
- One should never accept anything unless one is certain that it is true.
- One should break down difficult problems into manageable pieces.
- One should work from the simple to the complex, always looking for connections.
- One should be as complete and impartial as possible.
- For meteorologists, sets of surface readings constitute crucial information. They often occur at a weather station, ship, or weather buoy and provide a picture of various meteorological conditions at a single site. A weather station can measure a variety of atmospheric observables.
- A professional station may also include air quality sensors (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, dust, and smoke), a ceilometer (cloud ceiling), a falling precipitation sensor, a flood sensor, a lightning sensor, a microphone (explosions, sonic booms, thunder), and a pyranometer/pyrheliometer. Temperature, pressure, wind measurements, and humidity are the variables one can measure by (visibility) and a GPS timepiece for data logging.
- For weather forecasting, upper-air data are essential. The most common technique is Radiosonde launches. The World Meteorological Organization has set up a network of aircraft collections to supplement the radiosondes.
Some major meteorological principles are as follows:
The study of processes in the air layer directly above the surface of the Earth is called boundary layer meteorology (ABL). The surface’s heating, cooling, and frictional actions result in turbulent mixing of the air layer. Turbulent motions are responsible for significant heat, mass, or momentum movement on periods shorter than a day. Boundary layer involves the study of all forms of surface-atmosphere boundaries, including ocean, lake, urban land, and non-urban land.
The fluid dynamics of the atmosphere are typically the main focus of dynamic meteorology. While ignoring the atmosphere’s distinct molecular and chemical character, the concept of an “air parcel” is employed to define the minor component of the atmosphere. An air parcel is a point in the fluid continuity of the atmosphere. The atmosphere is studied using the fundamental laws of fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and motion. Temperature, density, pressure, and Other physical properties of the atmosphere include these. In the continuum, these variables each have distinct values.
Some applications in various fields are
- Weather forecasting
- Aviation Meteorology
- Agricultural Meteorology
- Nuclear meteorology
- Maritime meteorology
- Military meteorology
- Environmental meteorology
- Renewable Energy
The Indian Meteorological Society
The Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Indian government oversees the India Meteorological Department (IMD). It is the leading organization in charge of seismology, meteorological observations, and weather forecasting. IMD has its main office in Delhi and runs numerous observation stations throughout India and Antarctica. Chennai, Mumbai, Kolkata, Nagpur, Guwahati, and New Delhi have regional offices.
IMD is one of the World Meteorological Organization’s six Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers. It is in charge of forecasting, naming, and disseminating warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northern Indian Ocean region, including the Malacca Straits, the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Persian Gulf.
- Meteorology is the study of atmospheric sciences with a primary focus on weather forecasting.
- It helps to determine the weather and has many applications across various fields such as military, agriculture, etc.
- Various techniques in meteorology have been crucial in determining natural calamities like cyclones, hurricanes, storms, etc., in the past.
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Q1. What is meteorology?
Answer: Meteorology is the study of atmospheric sciences with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Q2. What are the categories in meteorology?
Answer: Some major meteorological categories are dynamic meteorology and boundary layer meteorology.
Q3. What are the fields where meteorology is used?
Answer: Some fields where meteorology is used are agriculture, military, weather forecasting, etc.