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The title ‘Father of Geography’ is given to the inventor who coined the term ‘geography’ and conducted essential research in the field. The term geography is derived from the Greek word ‘Geographika.’ As a result, geography is seen as a science that investigates the Earth and its physical properties. In this blog, you will find the answer to who is the father of geography and how it was invented.
Who is the Father of Geography?
‘Eratosthenes of Cyrene’ is renowned as the ‘Father of Geography’ as he is credited with coining the term ‘geography.’ This astronomer and mathematician was born in 276 BC in Ancient Greece. As the head of the Great Library during the reign of Pharaoh Ptolemy III, he wrote a three-volume series called Geographika.
According to his research, the lithosphere refers to the land and its numerous properties, the atmosphere refers to the gaseous blanket that surrounds planet Earth, the hydrosphere refers to the water surface and its various qualities, and the biosphere refers to the living species found on both land and in water.
These are the branches of physical geography
- Landscape Ecology
- Environmental Management.
- Coastal Geography.
Few Facts About Father of Geography (Eratosthenes)
Here are some facts about Eratosthenes, the first known geographer. Examine them to learn more about Eratosthenes.
- Known For- Father of Geography.
Born- c. 276 BCE in Cyrene (present-day Libya)
Died- 192 or 196 BCE in Alexandria, Egypt
- Physical Geography is the study of the planet Earth, the Hydrosphere (the water surface of Earth and its characteristics), the Lithosphere (the land and its features), the Biosphere (the living species in land and water), and the Atmosphere (the gaseous blanket that surrounds the earth). These were the observations made by Eratosthenes.
- Eratosthenes, like any other young Greek of the time, attended the local gymnasium to study physical abilities and social interaction, as well as reading, writing, mathematics, poetry, and music.
- Eratosthenes traveled to Athens to further his studies. Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism, taught him there. He then studied under Aristo of Chios, who led a more pessimistic philosophical school.
- Eratosthenes was the head of the Library of Alexandria, the most important library in the ancient world, from 240 BC until his death.
Who is the father of geography?
There is a lot of discussion about who is the father of geography. Hecataeus is known for his accurate projection of the earth and Eratosthenes is known for coining the term geography, both are known for their individual contributions to the field of geography. Hence, both are considered fathers of geography.
Hecataeus, Father of Geography
- He developed the first accurate projection of the earth, earning him the title ‘Father of Geography.’
- His projection included grid lines that resembled the longitudes and latitudes found on maps today.
- He estimated the circumference of the Earth precisely. His calculation was accurate to within 100 kilometers.
- Hecataeus computed the circumference of the Earth using variables such as the depth of a Syene well. He measured the circumference by following the Sun’s instructions.
- He also explained the leap year and measured the Earth’s tilt.
- Hecateaus presented a detailed account of the Mediterranean Sea, islands, and straits, as well as a broad overview of all the world’s countries. It is the earliest systematic account of the world. Hence, Hecataeus is renowned as the ‘Father of Geography’ as a result.
The Conclusions of Eratosthenes
- Eratosthenes, the inventor of geography, created an admirably detailed map of the world.
- The ‘Eratosthenes sieve’ is a prime number identification algorithm.
- His map is made up of grid lines that depict latitudes and longitudes, which differ from how we used to portray various locations on the Earth.
- Eratosthenes accurately measured the circumference or perimeter of the Earth without leaving Egypt.
- One of his innovations is the Leap Year Calculation, which we still use today.
- Eratosthenes studied and computed the tilt of the Earth’s orbital axis.
List of Famous Geographers
Listed below is some more scientists and geographers who are regarded as the fathers of geography, according to various fields of geography.
|Father of modern cartography||Heinrich Caesar Berann|
|Father of phytogeography||Alexander Von Humboldt|
|Father of scientific climatology||Reid Bryson|
|Father of modern geomorphology||Grove Carl Gilbert|
|Father of American geography||William Morris David|
|Father of geology||Sir Charles Lyell|
|Father of human geography||Carl Ritter.|
- ‘Eratosthenes of Cyrene’ is known as the ‘Father of Geography,’ having coined the term ‘geography.’ This astronomer and mathematician was born in Ancient Greece in 276 BC.
- Hecataeus presented a detailed account of the Mediterranean Sea, islands, and straits, as well as a broad overview of all the world’s countries. Hecateaus is also known as the ‘Father of Geography’ as a result of his detailed and systematic research.
- Eratosthenes created a very detailed map of the world. His map is made up of grid lines that help in identifying latitudes and longitudes, which differ from how we used to portray various locations on the Earth.
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Liked this blog? Read next: Things you must know about the study of the earth!
Q1. Who had calculated the radius of the earth for the first time?
Ans-Eratosthenes calculated the radius of the earth for the first time.
Q2. Who is considered the father of social geography?
Ans-The word ‘social geography’ was first used in the Anglo-American tradition by George Wilson Hoke, whose work ‘The Study of Social Geography’ was published in 1907, but there is little evidence that it had any academic impact.
Q3. Who is the father of physical geography?
Ans-Alexander von Humboldt is regarded as the father of physical geography.